England is the most populous Home Nation of the United Kingdom. It accounts for more than 83% of the total UK population,
occupies most of the southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain and shares land borders with Scotland, to the north, and Wales, to the
west. Elsewhere, it is bordered by the North Sea, Irish Sea, Atlantic Ocean and English Channel.
The two traditional symbols of England are the St. George's cross (the English flag) and the Three Lions coat of arms
(see above), both derived from the great Norman powers that formed the monarchy – the Cross of Aquitaine and the Lions of Anjou.
The three lions were first definitely used by Richard I (Richard the Lionheart) in the late 12th century (although it is also possible that
Henry I may have bestowed it on his son Henry before then). Historian Simon Schama has argued that the Three Lions are the true symbol of
England because the English throne descended down the Angevin line.
Rose is widely recognized as the national flower of England and is used in a variety of contexts. Predominantly, this
is a red rose (which also symbolizes Lancashire), such as the badge of the English Rugby Union team. However, a white rose (which also
symbolizes Yorkshire) or a "Tudor rose" (symbolizing the end of the War of the Roses) may also be used on different occasions.
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